Pneumonia Causes and Symptoms
How do you know what pneumonia is and what are the signs and symptoms of pneumonia? Therefore, pneumonia is the presence of fluid in the alveoli. So we have millions of these tiny very thin membranes in the lungs. At this point the diagnosis of pneumonia will be made in your lungs. Not about 1,500 miles, you believe, and 300 to 500 million airways and alveoli are not so attractive because these thin membranes require a large amount of surface space to exchange all the gases you need. Filled Alveoli Let’s talk about how you can get it There are three main ways we talk about all three, so the first method is to get it from what we call a community. You live in what we call this community-acquired pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae is Gram-negative or sorry Gram-positive I color it purple and the second most common bacterium that causes community-acquired pneumonia is pneumonia. We call it aspirin pneumonia and if an adult has weak swallowing muscles and maybe even expects a little of the water they are trying to drink, here is a picture of the alveoli. If these tiny very thin air exchange membranes had multiple alveoli, here is another example close by and they are more likely to crave when small babies are breastfed. Or if they inhale meconium at birth or otherwise, an adult may have poor swallowing muscles, another condition that can occur is vomiting and then they ask for vomit if they are unconscious.
When they vomit when they are heavily intoxicated They are already over and then they can expect that vomiting so anything we know can be called aspirin pneumonia and one thing that makes this worse in infants is that usually our alveoli are protected by alveolar macrophage white blood cells but newborns have alveolar I would like to point out here that they are more prone to pneumonia due to lack of macrophages. Pneumonia, which is then acquired by the community, is often caused by a viral infection that damages the mucous membranes, damaging the respiratory cells and exposing us to a bacterial infection that causes bacterial inflammation that infects the alveoli and causes pneumonia. But in this case a foreign body actually descends into the lungs and may be a piece of food. Adults may have amniotic fluid. have. Then the third type of pneumonia or the third method hospital to get it is so involved or we got more precisely the pneumonia when it was a patient getting pneumonia due to pneumonia. Then any kind of bacteria already present in the hospital environment can easily enter that patient’s lungs. Sadly, they are already more immunized than a healthy patient and therefore they are more likely to develop this hospital-related infection. I will put here a few gram-negative ds. Because at least in this case it’s a bit of a moving target but the most common bacterium that causes airborne pneumonia is Suna Monus Arusian OSA it loves air and it is a mandatory aircraft.
Although any bacterium in the hospital can cause pneumonia, my latest reading is Pseudomonas aeruginosa If this gram-negative rod is the most common, then let’s find out what the signs and symptoms are. Five different symptoms that I will explain to you is a cough-producing cough that can actually spread the disease but may not be prevalent in most healthy people but may increase the mucus due to inflammation in the lungs. Increased pulmonary edema is one symptom. The second symptom you can learn is cyanosis, so if we look at their hands or lips they may have a bluish tinge which indicates that they do not have enough oxygen. Blood is filled with alveolar fluid, which interferes with gas exchange.Extreme cyanosis and then we see the lips and gums of the nails Next we can see the third symptom of the flu is pneumonia Fever and when our temperature rises we feel cold when our temperature drops a little We feel hot and sweaty when we have a fever and often Fluctuations occur because our temperature goes up and down and up and down. These are fires because this is pyrogen. To reset our thermometer to a higher temperature, the brain and we can release it from the flu-causing pathogen or our immune response or from our own cells. So maybe our own cells are trying to prevent the causative agent by preventing it from multiplying and releasing the pyrogen that causes us the flu.
That is our way of fighting. However, there are certain types of pathogens that have the ability to release pyrogen. The cause of the fever in the body may be one or the other. The next classic symptom is what I call a snap crackle pop and I want to see if you can imagine what a snap crackle pop is. offs auscultation We listen to the lungs with a stethoscope on the lungs. The supplier then places the stethoscope behind it and gives the patient a deep breath, and if they hear a sound, the lungs indicate fluid movement in the alveoli and the basis for diagnosing pneumonia is a fluid-filled alveoli. Then the final symptom is pain when the person is trying to breathe, so what we are wearing here is a few lungs and they have pain especially when breathing in and out because of the prostaglandins that are released from our damaged cells in the alveoli prostaglandins. They cause our painful nerve endings to become more sensitive than usual. I’m sorry I have to turn the paper over to do this part OK so I want to take a moment to talk about this Pulse Ox Tournament Oxymetry So this is a really common thing now and they now go to the doctor for physics and they put one of these little instruments on your finger And it is expected by reading something like ninety-eight percent or something like that in general. This is a quick way to see how much oxygen is saturated in the blood.
So the quickest way to tell if a patient is getting enough oxygen in their blood is to show a decrease in oxygen saturation with a pulse.Oximeter and you will not be surprised if the patient has cyanosis I should warn you about the decrease in oxygen saturation but if you already know that the patient has poor circulation this will give less reading than any other way. So stay tuned I would like to take a moment to review this whole page, so we talked about pneumonia based on the fact that the diagnosis of pneumonia is based on a sputum culture and sometimes clouds and X healthy lungs turn black. Therefore clouds can show epidemiology. If there are fluid-filled alveoli, it is caused by inflammation or infection caused by some kind of inflammation. Our alveoli are the way we exchange gas, and for some, the alveoli can interfere with fluid-filled gas exchange, so how do you get pneumonia? There are three main types of community-acquired methods. Most often the secondary bacterial infection is Streptococcus pneumoniae T he influenza virus can infect our respiratory cells and cause strep throat infection.
Does. If they inhale something and are more likely to get pneumonia, elderly patients are more likely to have very weak muscles in their swallowing muscles after their surgery, and they are more likely to inhale even a small amount of water, and if a patient is unconscious and vomits, pneumonia is a third possible cause. Respiratory pneumonia This is a hospital-related infection that can be any hospitalized but more common bacterium. The bacteria that enter the airways to cause pneumonia is Pneumonos aeruginosa, which is an essential air. At the time of writing, the most common causative agent is pneumonia. Then I went over five symptoms of pneumonia. One of them is that inflammation increases the production of mucus in the air and causes a number of coughs as a result of coughing. Two fluid-filled alveoli and air exchange reduce the oxygen saturation seen by cyanosis of the lips and gums. A third pyrogen can be released from a pathogen or from our own cells. Fourth, the fluid in the lungs can be heard through a stethoscope, causing a fever-like sound in the lungs, and the lungs become very painful when the patient inhales prostaglandins, which are released by our damaged cells. End and our nerve ending or pain nerve ending are more likely to trigger active potentials so I wanted to mention pull pulse oximetry, a small gadget that is placed on the finger to get a quick indication of how much oxygen is in the blood that we feel pain in. However be aware that this technology will produce if a patient is already known to have poor circulation.
Treatment of Pneumonia
We’re going to talk again about the antibiotic management of pneumonia, because we’re going to talk about some of the things that make up the lamentable bacteria we experience. We need to use it on a daily basis to prevent pneumonia. Let’s talk about some of the vaccines they have there. Then we will briefly mention some of the possible complications of pneumonia. Can be very deadly, I will not lie to you Pneumonia antibiotic management drug management is the hardest part of all this and we are going to talk I will do my best to help it makes sense to you so we should talk about this with antibiotic management drug management clinically In the sense of settings. So here’s how we go through this. We’ve given this at different times so we’ll start with a community – acquired pneumonia, so we’ll come here with the first type of condition. Someone should come and show signs of community-acquired pneumonia but they have suspicious signs that the community-acquired pneumonia does not have a second and more recent antibiotic treatment in the last 90 days. This means that ABX has not had any antibiotics recently. If a patient comes to you in the last 90 days and they show these conditions, the community has acquired pneumonia and they are no other healthy and they are not healthy and have no recent antibiotic treatment and can give you 90 options.
The status ype is like a line machine that can be passed through the machine. This has the potential to cover a large number of different bacteria that are specific to recently acquired pneumonia and if nothing else we can do is give doxycycline and doxycycline is a type of tetracycline. It is again a protein synthesis inhibitor. Therefore, these are some antibiotics.The king has contracted pneumonia and there is no antibiotic treatment. Again let’s take it to the next level of macro light or doxycycline like Seether Mason. Again this is an outpatient and let’s actually mark this here. Outpatient, so we put this out of the patient setting. So this is an outpatient setting you come to your primary care provider. You explain all this and they can give you a macrolide or a doxycycline. If someone comes in as a primary care provider or they are present and you suspect pneumonia acquired by the community but there is an underlying correlation with them, they have recently been given antibiotic therapy in the last 90 days. What are these correlations you have made now? Pulmonary diseases, for example, should be looked into.
COPD Asthma or Liver Disease Chronic kidney disease is another cancer. mmunosuppressant therapy is another treatment for heart disease or diabetes. These are just some of the goal setting shareware that you can use. So COPD Diabetes Kidney Disease Heart Attack Heart Attack Immunodeficiency Disease or Immunosuppressive Therapies And the bigger ‘i’ In other words, they do not need to remove their spleen because they have to fight against certain types of blocked bacteria Prevents them from being able to. So if someone and your option is good with this you can switch it. You can give these back and we will talk about what we can do with these. But it should give us something different than what we do. We can give what is called respiratory fluoroquinolones. Some of these are moxifloxacin and you have levofloxacin and if you have another give me a jimmy phlox gate levofloxacin OK so what you can give here is that you can get what is called holiday o phlox. So we could still do this if we were not given respiratory fluoroquinolones. We can still provide macro light. If I am given a macro line or a doxycycline I should be given one of these two. I have three options. One is that I can take high doses of amoxicillin or augmentin, and all augmentin is its amoxicillin with beta-lactamase inhibition, which provides another cover for resistant bacteria, or gives you a third-generation cephalosporin background and still exists. So this is still an outpatient background. Now we come to the part where we talk about the middle ground. The next situation is that some people get really sick and again we are still a community that has acquired pneumonia and they suspect that they are coming to you with community acquired pneumonia but they are showing some really bad deteriorating symptoms.
What are you doing? uld do means you can hospitalize them for observation, so if you have community-acquired pneumonia they are based on a score of 65. Suppression 65 therefore means that U is for uranium and that urea is high. If you have low diastolic blood pressure or if you are over 65, if you have high respiratory rate and B for blood pressure, then R in the blood is for respiratory rate. Give them antibiotics and send them home. There may be two signs of 65. Then you will need to admit them to the hospital for observation. If there are more than three of them it is OK to put them in the intensive care unit, so we talk about suppressing it in 65 seconds. We will write it down. But again you prevent it 65 Confusion Uranium Respiratory Speed Blood Stress and if they are over 65, if they have zero, or if one or two people are given antibiotics, send them home for outpatient care. Then you will need to admit them to the hospital. If there are three or more of them, you will put them in the intensive care unit. So if they have community-acquired pneumonia and in this case we say, 65 of the two is better to prevent, we should hospitalize them. Then if we do that the antibiotic therapy changes then they will be admitted to the hospital now. A little so for example you can still do respiratory fluoroquinolones but we will change if we are going to do another option, so if there is another option we can do macrolide again, or we can doxycycline. But if we do, we give it two more options with ampicillin, or we can now call it ceftriaxone. Ampicillin is a type of penicillin.
It is a type of penicillin. Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin, so if we are given macrolides or docs ycycline we should give it with ampicillin or ceftriaxone. Therefore, one community acquired pneumonia for a score of 65 out of 2 points. We now have as little as we can. Next Let’s go Next If they have a patient coming in they have taken over the community Pneumonia The specific community has acquired pneumonia Pneumonia 3 out of 65 and three or more What do you put into the intensive care unit? It will change your regime again We can do something like this. We can take ceftriaxone specifically, then we can take ceftriaxone, or we can take another third generation cephalosporin cefotaxime. If we do it with ceftriaxone or cefotaxime we should combine it with two other options. Take ceftriaxone or cefotaxime, but if we do, it should be given with zero or fluoroquinolones. Then another option like throwing away a holiday like mycenae macrolide or fluoroquinolone is that we can do what macrolide or fluoroquinolone can do, but we call this ampicillin and resell them. This is also known as Unison. So they will give it another name. We can call it return and their reversal is only a beta-lactamase inhibition and we call it aggregation.
This we can combine again with a macro line or fluoroquinolone. Now the next thing you need to know is if someone has a beta lactam or penicillin allergy, you should be careful when giving other antibiotics such as beta lactam. So beta lactam If I want to remember penicillin cephalosporin carbapenems and mono base there is a chance if someone has a penicillin allergy. Cross-reactivity with other beta-lactams can lead to a 1 to 3% chance of developing a reaction to cephalosporins, and then a very low chance of developing an extract of l-bacteria or a cross-bacterial allergy to monobacteria – The one you would like to give is a mono called ash-tree annual, so you need to keep in mind that if the patient has a penicillin allergy and needs to be given a gray tryrianon ash tree annually, it is a mono-BAC tomato spectrum antibiotic and is a very good one. So penicillin allergy needs to give you something like ash tree and instead of giving ampicillin or ceftriaxone instead I give it now this covers the pneumonia that our community has acquired. This is what we give if we doubt this. How long will we do this treatment now? Generally, the duration of treatment for community-acquired pneumonia is a minimum of five days, at least five days. They should show no signs of fever and should have a fever for at least 48 to 72 hours.Less than one symptom of clinical instability. It is limited to 65 points. Therefore, when you go for therapy again, you should have a fever for at least five days, at least 48 to 72 hours. Clinical instability is better than one symptom and the reason you should be careful is that you can treat it with antibiotics and they think they will get better but in reality you did not cover the causative agent. It does a lot of damage and can cause your initial regime to become inactive and you will have to change antibiotics to cover the specific pathogen, so antibiotics are so hard and important right now, so this is our community that has acquired pneumonia and the next one We’m going to get pneumonia acquired by our hospital, but before we do that we need to talk about the special things to think about, especially pseudomonas, if we suspect that someone has pneumonia. ection OK, so we will write this. If you suspect pseudomonas aeruginosa, it will change your antibiotic treatment a bit, so what can you give us? Here are a few options. If I want you to remember three of them, all we can give them first will be the same. The only thing is to change the other antibiotic change drugs that you can give Sosin. You can give sapphire.
You can give them a pen. Or you can give what is called meropenam. To provide it with something else. Here we will get different types of options. Now zosyn has it all to give you an idea. It’s actually the beta-lactamase inhibitor that Tasso backs them up with, and Pepero Silim. Penicillin is a type of sweet ammonial penicillin cephalosporin, especially the fourth generation cephalosporin, followed by Emma panama meropenam, which is actually a broad spectrum of antibiotics covering many different types of infections. If you do this you can provide it with several options. First we write here that you can do zosyn cefepime imipenem meropenem and if you do so you can give it here with three options you can give it first with leave or cipro. The second option is what you can do with the aminoglycoside Aminoglycoside is again a protein synthesis inhibitor and the bigger one is gentamicin and you can give aminoglycoside plus macrolide or the third option is you can do aminoglycoside right. So here are some options you can do for someone you suspect has a fake monel infection. The next point is that if you not only believe in Pseudomonas but also think that there is potential for community-acquired MRSA, you are doing Vancomycin or Vancomycin is a very powerful antibiotic or something else you should do because you can linsellide Remember, if you have any doubts about the MRSA being acquired by the community, you can go to Vanco My Sin or Linna’s lid guys. So I decided that what I really needed to do was learn how to do it right. So it looks so beautiful. This is important because you know that pneumonia can be treated properly. So it is important that we have a good understanding of this, so we have covered community-acquired pneumonia.
We are hoping for pneumonia from the hospital. Now if you remember, you remember that hospital-acquired pneumonia lasted for more than two days each time you were admitted to the hospital. But when it comes to hospital-acquired pneumonia, there are two main types. What do I mean by start and delay? We got pneumonia from the hospital here. The pneumonia we acquired at the hospital was HAP good. This is hospital-acquired pneumonia. If we’re going to tell you early, it’s early onset means you’ve been in the hospital for more than two days, but less than five days, so you’re more than two days in the hospital, but less than five days or you have multiple It’s important again because the drug does not have anti – pneumonia. The hospital initially said that pneumonia was different from the way you treat it. So they have been in the hospital for more than two days but it is important that if they do not have a multi-drug anti-drug agent in the words for more than five days or so, it is not immune here. You usually have four options. The first thing you can do is actually bring it here, then we have plenty of chances that the first thing we can do is give us a third generation cephalosporin and that is the second option. The third option we can give the inhaler fluoroquinolone is to give us something called Otra Panam. ng or pennant is a carb, but it is not one of the weak carb. But it will be very helpful to be able to treat the original Allen.
Allen establishes hospital-acquired pneumonia and can give us a fourth chapter on what we can do. Giving is called Unison and Unison is only ampicillin and the spirit supports them. So these are four different things that can be given to us as pneumonia acquired by someone or hospitalized. More than two days in the hospital but no less than five days or multiple anti-immunosuppressants, now let’s say they stay in the hospital a little longer than we need. So the hospital has delayed the acquisition of pneumonia so now there is a chance that they will stay there for more than five days or they will improve. Multi-drug-resistant pathogen OK These are important pathogens that are actually resistant. Your Pseudomonas Your Merza Your Intro Bacteria OK These are real when you are in the 10’o bacteria How do we treat this like the nasty ones we have to be careful of, so all we can do is get the same thing for each of you, so you did If possible, you may be given an aminoglycoside such as gentamicin. Or you can give fluoroquinolones, so one of the good ones here is what kind of fluoroquinolones. Oh levofloxacin If we are given one of these we should give it with a couple. So what are some of our options? So one option is a peppermint vendor who can give it to you with zosyn zosyn and try them again.
If it is the second option of a very potent penicillin antibiotic you can give this It should be another carb, but it should be a carb that does not ask them. What are you Emma Panam doors? You have pinned them as Meropenam. These are really powerful ones. So here’s another option for the third one: Safe Tasmap Commander or some other option. Then you can take ceftazidime or cefapim. If they are more than five days late in the hospital, or if they have developed a multi-drug antimicrobial agent, we will not use an aminoglycoside or a respiratory fluoroquinolone carbine, such as a respiratory fluoroquinolone or an alternative fluoxetine. May be. Now here’s the next point and thanks for the final goodness. If Pseudomonas is positive due to some special circumstances we should give some other options here. So the best thing we can do is give us zosyn again but if we give zosyn we have to give us a couple of sosyn plus and we can give you leave. Can give us a number of ash trees that can give aminoglycosides. It is an example to them. Or we can give Meropinum. So that is one option and we can give Sosin. Give zosyn We should give it with vacation or gentamicin or ash tree annual or aminoglycoside like meropenam. Now another option you can do if you want is Pseudomonas You can do imipenam or meropenam but you have to give it with leave. Or an ash tree so another option you can do here is to squeeze it here. So if I say this we can say Meropenam or Pennan. But if we do these you have to remember to give these with vacation or asterium. And again, these would mean that you have to spend for these processes. If you doubt that Marza will give them Vancouver Mission or Linesolid I need to mention other things very soon, so what are we talking about Marza? Mirza Api Edi said that it contains methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus beta lactamus – it breaks down many different types of penicillin in a box.
People who are at high risk for our beta lactam merza will be in the hospital. If they have recently been admitted or have been given antibiotic therapy, or if they have a history of colonization or MRSA infection, and last but not least, if their body is aggressively exposed to some form of health device, it all increases their risk for MRSA. Another thing to keep in mind when you do all of these treatments is that you do a lot of it IV One thing you should try to do is try to switch from IV to Pio therapy but all you need to do is have hemorrhagic stability so they can be tolerated orally or orally when they show signs of clinical improvement. Ations medicine or diet is important as well, so the last thing I want to talk about is I know I mentioned it earlier to really lower this. But again we have that repression 65 repression 65. I’ll braid it in this corner about something small here. To confuse you for uranium is to have high levels of urea in the blood, increase respiration rate, lower diastolic blood pressure, and then all patients over the age of 65 who are 65 are 65 out of 65, so if anyone comes back They have a drop. Or give antibiotics to one of them. Shows two points f Admit these to the hospital for observation and give someone this particular antibiotic therapy. They put these three or more signs into the intensive care unit and if you suspect you have as many pseudomonas as you follow this category, change your antibiotic approach, then we said they will for more than two days or five days. If you are in the hospital for a short period of time, if you are late in the start or if they have improved, we will change the treatment accordingly because the multi-drug anti-inflammatory pathogens have been there for more than five days or they have increased the risk of contracting MERSA. .
Now that we have said this but recurrent community pneumonia lasts at least five days between 48 and 72 hours and less than one symptom of hospital-acquired clinical instability is usually at least seven days, but because of pseudomonas we usually have about fourteen If the day is right, the treatment lasts for about two weeks and usually within the first two to three days they start to show signs of clinical progress, then we can change the regulations accordingly, so that is what we do for antibiotic management, but remember again these patients are in pain You do not always have to give antibiotics alone because you are suffering. You may be given some painkillers. You may also be able to reduce the pain a bit. These are some of the things we do for this patient, right guys so we This last thing we’ve going to talk about is almost certainly important in preventing complications and we need to expand this knowledge of ways we can help prevent pneumonia. So we get the vaccine right. So big one and it’s called pneumococcal vaccine especially they call it ppsv23 so right here the right thing is really important. Therefore, the 23 to 23 position is the 23 polysaccharide antibodies in streptococcal pneumonia bacteria. Let me write to you here, since 23 is actually 23 polysaccharide antibodies on Shapneumo, so streptococcal pneumonia These antibodies in the capsule of these bacteria are actually between 85 and 90 percent of these antibodies.
Aggressive strep pneumoniae are good, so it’s important that 23 to 85 to 90 percent of the polysaccharide antibodies in the pneumococcus are 85 to 90 percent of the ppsv23 currently available for very aggressive stripe pneumo age-specific Giving is really important, but if the patient has an underlying correlation, for example, you may want to give this to 65-year-old patients. They may have HIV because of existing diseases, they may have diabetes, and they may have malignant cancer. If not, they may have some form of hemorrhagic fever. Sometimes you need to know about another time you need to get this pneumococcal vaccine. If they are 19 years old, they have a history of asthma or smoking. This increases the risk of developing some form of pneumonia. Now you can give it a try. There is another one we can give. The other one we can give is called PCV 13. Pneumonia is a pneumonia compound vaccine, so pcv13 tells us that there are 13 different polysaccharide antibodies. So there are 13 polysaccharide antibodies on pneumonia. Now you are usually given this vaccine when you are less than two years old. I give it two months, four months, six months and 12 to 15 months Old OK Now when you give these away it is best for you to give these PCV 13. So usually you need to give the first PCV 13. Then about eight weeks later, usually eight weeks later, you usually need this after about eight weeks. Give your ppsv23 OK Now let’s say if you are giving ppsv23 for the first time for any reason you should wait at least a year before giving the PCV 13 vaccine. So again I want to understand that there are two main vaccines ppsv23 This is good Unfortunately 19 year olds with a history of smoking or asthma are HIV positive. Here’s one big difference. All of these antibodies are the same for all 23, so it’s important that you give everything under 2, 2, 6, and 12, all the same. Give 15 months old PCV 13 Give ppsv23 after the first eight weeks. If this is given first you will need to be given PCV 13 a year later and it is important to prevent this from happening again and it will help to develop some form of immunity.
At least I know you’re probably happy. Eventually we got into complications here. So there are a few things you need to know that can develop with pneumonia. If it is not treated properly, it can get worse. What are some complications? One of the really bad ones is some kind of septic shock. This is a really bad one right. Septic shock is extremely dangerous and can lead to another life-threatening condition called pleural effusion, so what can sometimes happen is that as pneumonia develops it can develop into more chronic pleural effusion and can be really fatal. OK next thing is meningitis if this is another meningitis is another meningitis is another thing to keep in mind and meningitis is another factor that can develop as a complication if the viscera are very visceral and obviously the worst thing that can happen is hypoxia Is hypoxia that can cause you some problems and this can become a problem.