Now we take a cross-section of the skin where we find the outer layer of the skin and the three clear layers of the body that we can find, called the epidermis, and the thicker layer beneath the skin. And here’s another area called the hypodermis so let’s look at the diagrammatic form so that we have the surface of the epidermis and there are actually gaps called the surface of the epidermis And the epidermis is actually a very thin layer of skin and it’s packed full of cells but it’s a thinner and thinner junction between the top and the dermis below and the junction below the epidermis and the dermis below but the junction is wavy so that the upper dermis on the epidermis is the thicker layer below the epidermis. The surface is going to be the epidermis so that the epidermis dermis and this layer are mostly made up of most parts of the body that are very rich in adipocytes and this area below the fatty tissue. That means below is the hypo so we can call this the hypodermis of the hypodermis now that the structures go down into the lower parts of the skin and this structure is here for example a hair follicle so hairs are All over the surface, the body and the hairs grow out of your hair or in a man’s beard. hair follicles hair follicle hair follicle hair follicle hair follicle hair follicle hair follicle hair follicle hair follicle hair follicle hair follicle The top layer of hair follicle and other poor types of paws holes in the epidermis are what we have here are a gland that produces and secrets sweat and what we have in a sweat gland duct This is basically a coiled tube so that the sweat is produced in the glandular area and the uptake of the duct into the epidermal layer.
The dermis we have in these deeper dermal structures and as well as other structures in the dermis, for example, it is obvious that you are going to need a blood supply so there The capillaries go through the capillaries and the blood will go from the drain to the ventilator. There is a blood supply in the dermis but interestingly there is no blood supply in the epidermis and yet the epidermis is made up of at least the lower parts of the epidermis. The new cells and then more cells form where there is not enough space for the cells to be pushed up and these cells eventually become flattened and the slough off the surface so that we see the epidermis There are cells of the strata and these are important because the epidermis is exposed to all the rough and tumble surface of the body which is so thick that it needs to be strong and what you call a stratified. epithelium stratified means that layers of strata like the earth have a number of stratas where things have happened, such as volcanoes or sedimentary formations or whatever you see in the edge of the quarries.cells in the epidermis It’s a stratified epithelium A tissue which lies in the surface of something and in this case of the body of the lining of the surface and it’s also rich in carotenoids ample your fingernails. Keratin and the surface of the skin are mostly keratin so it’s a keratinized stratified epithelium and actually by the time the surface of the cells get to the surface of the epidermis they are going to be flattened. The epidermis is a keratinized stratified squamous epithelial layer and the lower half of the living cells in the epidermis and yet we’ve just said that The epidermis does not have a blood supply so how can there be any blood supply? illaries and tissue fluid bathes the lower part of the epidermis and through this tissue fluid oxygen can go to the living cells nutrients like glucose and amino acids can go to the living cells like carbon dioxide. The epidermis back into the tissue fluids of the dermis and usually an epithelium is a basement member so we can call this a basement membrane between the dermis and the epidermis. There is no epithelial layer for a complete basement membrane which is the epidermis well and we’ve gotten the blood supply so if there are gaps in it The living cells go through the diffusion of oxygen and nutrients to make it easier for the carbon dioxide and other products to diffuse from the epididy. ermis back into the dermis so what can we call this bit here not some of your basement membrane but we call it a basement membrane zone there is some basement membrane but there are other areas where there is not so much basement membrane There is also an active blood supply in the epidermis of the epidermis of the dermis and also there are many nerve receptors in the domes for example where there are branched receptors throughout the dermis and these receptors We call the nerve receptors that are sensitive to the pain well the nerve receptors are so called nociceptors so these are the nociceptors here. Because it stimulates the pain receptors of the nociceptors of the dermis and also of the other types of receptors for example, going to the temperature receptors some detect hot some detect cold and then deeper down in the dermis. receptors and these detect pressure so that we can be aware of the temperature and the temperature of the skin. The epidermis of the very bottom layer of the epidermis, but also some of the epidermis contained in the outer surface of the epidermis itself, is not as sensitive as the epidermis itself.
The epidermis below and we notice that the line between the epidermis and the dermis is about the wavering let’s think about why there are two surfaces now that superimpose the dermis and the derivative of the epidermis. There is not much surface area between the two and it is quite easy for one to simply slide off the other but we don’t want the epidermis to become disconnected from the dermis Cement boxes really do look like there are more projections out there that let’s go up These two projections and then the epidermis would be a bit like this layer where it fits in. So now these two layers are fitted together with a large surface area between these two layers. Blistering is much less likely to occur and it also increases the surface area between the dermis and the epidermis to allow the oxygenation and nutrition of the epidermis itself. The epidermis is actually a three-dimensional layer of what the epidermis does because it dips down into the skin. What’s happening here is that the surface layer of the epidermis is in coloring so that we can see the epidermis in the lower layers. The epidermal cells are actually folded down into the skin follicles and likewise the sweat glands epidermal cells are lining the sweat glands. The epidermis is not so flat that it is dipping down into the deeper structures of the hypodermis and this is very important because of course the skin can become an abrasion where we scrape them off or there The skin is killed and in fact clinically reclassified as if it was a burn, this is an area of epidermis that affects the epidermis, such as the epidermis of the epidermis. Injury is going down to the top part of the dermis and this part of the skin is lost if that part of the skin is lost we call it a superficial dermal injury or a superfi An example of a cial partial thickness injury is that when exposed to a superficial burn, the superficial partial thickness of the upper layers of the skin may be burned. dermis or if it was a deeper partial thickness injury All this layer could have been lost here If there was a deeper partial thickness injury or even some skin thickness If you see a partial thickness injury or the epidermis of this surface layer, then you have a min Basic wound healing wounds can basically be one of two ways they can be healed by a generation or they can now be healed by fibrosis and repair. ‘With a scar but it’s good because the injury is actually covered up so it’s a good patch if you like it but you can see how much better it is. The tissue of the cells in the mitosis and regeneration can be left and that can be allowed to regenerate the tissue so that it regenerates the tissue so ideally that we want it to heal rather than regenerate If you got a box with a rabbit in it, you could have a box with no rabbits.
have as m As with any rabbits, you can reproduce more skin cells and they will reproduce as much as they can. The epidermis of the epidermis we are doing and we want the epidermis to regenerate and grow back then we need to find the epidermal cells preserved in the deeper structures to provide the raw material for the regeneration of the cells Really clever that there are spare epidermal cells downThere is a deep partial thickness injury that can still be treated by regeneration. This is the kind of insurance policy that is healing and regeneration that means that the body will have its own epidermal cells once again covering the skin and scarring without healing. We often see partial thickness injuries and cases of partial thickness injuries in clinical practice from abrasion and burns and they are very painful. They’re very painful injuries and we’ve said that there are no nociceptors out there that have no pain receptors. ace receptors These nociceptors have got the top of the epidermis so they are not exposed but if I come along with a piece of sandpaper and rub off the top of the skin or you have an abrasion rubbing your elbow on the road or something That means that the nociceptors are going to be exposed and the exposed nociceptors generate a lot of pain and we need to cover these things. analgesics as well as we’ve got the epidermis We’ve got the dermis in particular structures where the connective tissue it contains collagen fibers and elastic fibers rich in science so they are the three layers of the epidermis the dermis and below the hypodermis.